Causes of insomnia
The second reason is chronic mental fatigue, symptoms which are constant desire to sleep in daytime, wakefulness at night, heavy awakening, lethargy, weakness and fatigue even from small loads.
Causes of insomnia can also be such insignificant at first glance, little things:
— uncomfortable bed, pillow, pyjamas;
— the consumption of beverages containing caffeine (coffee, tea, Cola, energy drinks);
— taking medicine before sleeping;
— rich and fatty foods before bedtime;
— loud noise, irritating odor, bright light;
— harmful habits (alcohol and Smoking adversely affect quality of sleep);
— strong emotions, unfulfilled desires or interests.
Diagnosis of insomnia
- First of all, the physician must evaluate the individual Chrono-biological stereotypes of people who are congenital (lark or owl, or gallopade korotkoje).
- Need to ask the patient about the nature of his professional activities, potential impact on problems with sleep (shift work, the regular stresses of the job).
- It is imperative to ask the patient whether (took) it any drugs, are there bad habits, comorbidities.
- We need a detailed psychological study of the patient.
- To estimate the duration and characteristics of the separate phases of sleep will help the results of polysomnography.
Treatment of insomnia
When treating all forms of insomnia it is necessary to observe the hygiene of the sleep, adhere to the following principles:
To go to bed and need to get up at the same time. NAPs, especially in the second half of the day, you want to exclude. Need a full, balanced diet. It is prohibited to employ at night tea or coffee. In the evening it is necessary to maximally reduce mental workload, stressful situations.
In the evening, but not later than 2 hours before bedtime, you need to organize a feasible exercise.
Rapid sleep contribute to water treatments before bed. It is necessary to give preference to cool or warm the soul. Contrast water procedures, the adoption of excessively hot or cold baths is not recommended.
Of non-drug methods for insomnia treatment applied psychotherapy, phototherapy (treatment with bright white light), acupuncture, physiotherapy.
Drug treatment of insomnia
If you know the main cause of insomnia, then you need to treat leading the disease.
In most cases treatment of insomnia is the appointment of symptomatic drugs – sleeping pills. Most often used zolpidem, zopiclone, zaleplon.
Basic principles of drug treatment of insomnia:
Give preference to the use of short-lived drugs. To avoid creating dependency, the duration of the appointment of hypnotics should not exceed three weeks (on average, these drugs prescribed for 10-14 days).
It is necessary to consider the possible interaction of sleeping pills taken with other drugs. Elderly people are prescribed half the dose of the drug. If there is suspicion of the presence of the syndrome of sudden respiratory arrest (apnea) during sleep, such patients are administered doxylamine and melatonin.
Patients with sleep duration of more than 6 hours in the presence of a subjective dissatisfaction with sleep, sleeping pills are not prescribed, and is a therapy. Hypnotics the drug is taken only as needed. Prolonged use of hypnotics should be carried out "drug holidays". If sleep problems associated with depression, for the treatment of sleep disorders used antidepressants.